There are 3 routes over the Caspian Sea that take passengers on board. One connects Baku in Azerbaijan to Aktau in Kazakhstan, another runs between Baku and Turkmenbashi in Turkmenistan. A new route runs between Turkmenbashi and Olya in Russia. These are cargo ships, although there is now also a fancier cargo-passenger ferry between Baku and Turkmenistan. This means there is no passenger ferry service over the Caspian Sea to Iran.
Some boats, but not all, have recently started arriving and departing in Alat, 70 km north of Baku, instead of in Baku.
Although some people say it is easy to take the ferry, the rules change all the time and it usually comes with a fair bit of uncertainty and confusion. Make sure you budget enough extra days and are flexible with your schedule, so taking the ferry can become a fun and rewarding experience instead of a nerve-wrecking one.
New ferry Turkmenbashi to Baku and Olya
There is a new boat in town, it’s called the Berkarar. It seems to operate under the same conditions as other boats (see more on that below), meaning no timetable and same confusing way to buy tickets. Maybe not! We don’t have enough info yet, really. But it is more set up for passengers. We only have one report so far, here is what we know:
It’s a fast ferry which can probably cross Baku – Turkmenbashi in 8 to 10 hours, but you should still budget 1-2 days as loading on and off can take ages. Ferry is tourist class, just wait until or if the 2 bars, buffet and shops open. The kids playroom is equipped so bring your children. Beds are great, good ship bathrooms with hot water showers. They even have lounges and large flat screen TVs with hundreds of useless channels, so bring some USB movies for the Turkish drivers.
What about the route to Olya? The Berkarar seems to be going there, but we are in doubt when it comes to the details. Find out more on the Berkarar and its sister ship the Bagtiyar, to arrive summer 2015 (that’s now).
More updates welcome.
There is no timetable for any of these ferries. When they leave depends a lot on the weather, and on the amount of freight that is loaded. Basically, it leaves when it’s full. This means every 3-5 days between Aktau and Baku and every day or every other day to Turkmenbashi and back. The passage takes around 30 hours for Baku-Aktau and 17 hours for Baku-Turkmenbashi.
However, serious delays happen often. Between Baku and Aktau you can wait up to 2 weeks if you are unlucky. Although the Baku – Turkmenbashi is much more reliable, the port in Turkmenbashi is sometimes too busy, which means you can wait up to a day or more in the port before you are allowed in. One traveler waited for 6 days! This can happen in the other ports too, by the way.
This is a serious issue if you are planning to take the boat to Turkmenbashi on a transit visa. If you arrive late in Turkmenbashi and your visa is expired, you will be deported back to Azerbaijan and, since you probably are not allowed to enter there either, onwards to Georgia or elsewhere. When going from Turkmenbashi to Aktau, you can get stamped out by the border guards before your boat has arrived and wait beyond the border if your transit visa has expired.
You can find out where the boats are, though, through the Marine Traffic website. On the map of the Caspian Sea, look for the following vessels: Nakchivan, Dagistan, Qara Qarayev, Heydar Aliyev, Mercuri-1, Professor Gul, Barda, Akademik Topchubashov. These are the vessels we know take passengers. Please let us know if you find out about another boat.
Ferry tickets and prices
Tickets for both itineraries can be bought only on the day the ferry leaves. You can find out when the ferry leaves by leaving your phone number at the ticket office, having someone call everyday (twice a day is better) or turning up yourself and asking “Is there a boat today?” A combination of these is best.
They will only sell tickets once there’s a confirmed sailing. Don’t trust what they say, though, keep asking around, you will hear many contradictory stories. Be persistant, don’t get fooled.
Current price for a ticket Turkmenbashi – Baku is 90$ (January 2015). Baku – Aktau is 110$ last we heard (June 2015). You might need to show onward visas when you buy a ticket. On the boat you can get a cabin for free, or 5, 10 or 20$ (bargain!). Onboard the Berkarar from the passenger manager it costs $50 for a seat, $105 single bed, $160 twin bed.
Where to buy tickets
See the chapters of the different ports for more on that.
Ferry with a car or bike
There is a separate charge for those crossing the seas with their vehicles. It changes from boat to boat (especially the ramp-scam has not been introduced everywhere yet).
Prices since April 2014: roughly, they will charge you an extra $50-70 USD per meter of the length of the vehicle transported to Turkmenistan and $100 USD per meter for a vehicle to Kazakhstan (Half a meter can be counted either way, try to measure smart!). One motorbike will cost you $110 USD (Turkmenistan) and $115 (Kazakhstan), a bicycle will cost $10 to both destinations. Another charge is for using the special bridge to board the ferry: 1 car is $25 USD, motorbike and bicycle $20 USD.
Yes, that’s a rip-off. Not all boats do this, though. On the other hand, some boats don’t mind asking for another 20$ to let you off the ferry.
If you are thinking of taking your car to Turkmenistan, see our article on driving in Turkmenistan for a full account of all the costs.
For Mongol Rally drivers
Want to take the ferry? You are not the only one. With the exploding popularity of the Mongol Rally, the people at the ticket office in Baku discovered a nice little earner in you and your fellow-drivers. Prices for tickets can suddenly increase drastically, as the places on board are limited. You might not get on the boat either, since they like to be strict about the number of people they let in. Plus, it will be full of other Mongol Rallyers. Some might like the companionship, while others prefer to get off the beaten track.
Since 2015, ferries are not leaving and arriving exclusively in Baku anymore, but also from Alat, 70 km to the north of Baku. Ferries from Baku only take trucks and cars, no individual passengers like hitchhikers or cyclists. Ferries from Alat only take trains and passengers, no cars. The procedure is the same if you leave from Alat or from Baku: you call in the morning to the office in Baku. If there is a boat you go to the office, buy the ticket and go to the port in Baku or Alat to catch the ferry.
Of course, this presents an issue for certain travelers, in particular cycle tourists. The way to solve this (this also goes for other travelers without their own means of transportation) is to hitch a ride with other travelers who do have a car. Find a trucker or a driver with space and hitch a ride. This way you will be leaving from Baku instead of Alat.
The location of the customs, the port, and the ticket office in Baku changes very, very, very frequently. Below are where we think they might be at this point in time (July 2015).
Where to buy tickets
Vika (Victoria), Amina and colleagues work at the Baku ticket office; some English spoken; +994 50 420 09 05, +99 455 266 5354 or +994 55 555 17 57. They will organise space for you and your vehicle. Their office is at the port in the Soviet grey heavy door just before entry. They are also very helpful if you don’t have a vehicle, but you will still need to buy the tickets yourself. Another helpful fixer is Ismahel (+994 552861200) who will take 30 manat to buy tickets for you, and can also help with visas.
1. Official ticket office of old ferry port (Gps 40.372931, 49.861316). This is where you are directed if you ask at the big “Passenger Terminal” building at the east end of the Bulvar. From the sea side of the terminal building, go east along the new concreted drive/walkway a few hundred metres, look for a gate on the right through the white construction site boarding. It is actually a continuation of the road from kassa 1, so there should be another gate on your left. This looks like a proper office with a board listing prices ($90 Turkmenbashi, $110 Aktau… says including cabin and meals if available), ask guards for opening times. They sell tickets for Azeri ferries only and maybe only ones for this port.2. Kassa in Ro Ro ferry port, 7km east of old ferry port (Gps 40.362907, 49.934454). Near Nagila cafe. Bus 46 goes from 28 May metro along Nobel Prospekti, then abruptly turns left at Nagila cafe (looks closed but still a landmark), the way to the kassa is a few hundred metres back, and is well described on Caravanistan’s ferry page. Sounds like this is the “main” kassa where you can buy the Alat ferry tickets (to Turkmenbashi or Aktau), it was however closed the 2 times I went so better phone first.
3. There is also a ticket “office” SW of New City Park, maybe what has been referred to as ticket office of the Old Ferry port. More or less the one shown on page 209 of the Georgia… Azer Lonely Planet 2012 (the train rails are gone and ferry dock is further west). There is a steel gate and a trailer office, with guards and some ladies hanging around who know something about tickets. If there is a ferry at this port, they may sell you a ticket otherwise they will ask you to call the now well known phone numbers or go to the port near Nagila Cafe. This ticket office might be the same we wrote about here:
Go to the old Seaport (map). In the front of this building take bus 175 or 46 or 2 or 19. Tell the driver to drop you off before the station of Nagila Cafe, near Prichal. He should stop at a blue sign at the beginning of a road leading towards the sea. Follow this road until you get to a big iron gate with anchors. The office is in the house on the right side before the gate, behind an old, grey door.
Just in case, the word for ferry in Russian is parom, ticket is bilyet, cash desk is kassa. First and hardest part is the ferry schedule and which kassa to go to. The ticket offices and ports are fairly well identified now.
- Phone the numbers listed above, they will tell you what to do.
- If you see a ferry docked at the old port or know one is arriving, check at the 2 old ferry port kassas. This seems to be only for Turkmenbashi bound Azeri ferries.
- For the Turkmen ferry, check http://www.marinetraffic.com then ask around the old ferry port for a more “precise” time once you know it is approaching. Note the Azeri immigration don’t like people boarding in the middle of the night, so come during normal hours if possible.
The ferry terminal is either at the old seaport (map) or 7 km more northeast. If it’s the ro-ro terminal 7 km out of town, it is quite easy to find, it’s on the big boulevard leaving from the other port. Going straight ahead, you will find the port clearly signed.
If you’re leaving the port, a taxi costs around 8 to 10 manat to the centre.
If you’re stuck at the port
By the port in Baku, if you walk half a mile up on the main road (and not the train tracks), there’s a great little pizza joint and a few markets. Also, if you’re stuck at the port in Baku and sleeping on the tarmac, there’s a family that offers hot showers for 2 manat. It’s a little house with a rubber hose hanging from a hook. It’s not the Four Seasons by any means but it’s hot, clean water. If you walk up the tracks to where the shacks are (facing the road) you should be able to find it. Just ask.
The port is in the middle of nowhere. There are taxis that will take dollars ($50 to Baku), and there is also a minibus. There is nowhere to change money, and no ATMs.
How to get there: catch a bus out towards the Bibi-Heybat mosque (Bus 20 starting from 28 May metro) and watch out for an elongated roundabout with lots of buses parked up on the other side of the road. Change buses there and take the 195 to Alat. In Alat there should be buses going to the port (or a taxi – it is only a short distance).
In Aqtau, you need to put your name on the passenger waiting list. The office is in downtown Aktau, 8 km away from port, at 5-29-1 (microrayon 5, building 29, appt 1 ground floor). Here you meet Katia, who speaks English and will call you when the boat is coming. Another ticket office is at 7-21-1. Telephone: 872 92 51 77 59. It’s close to the World War II monument with the eternal flame. They take 25$ commission. Very little English is spoken, so a local’s help might be needed. Ask for Aika, she understands a bit. You have to leave your phone number, and you will be called when the boat is leaving. Then it can still be up to a day before it actually leaves.
The nice thing about the customs in Kazakhstan is they might have free WI-FI. There’s another place with internet in town; a restaurant at 2-43, near the ferry ticket office.
If you’re leaving Aktau by train, there is a bus to the train station 25km outside of town. It’s bus 105. There seems to be no more bus from the center of town – a taxi will cost 1000 tenge.
In Turkmenbashi, there are no signs to signify the port or what part of the port you might require. If you find a sign denoting the Sea Port…you have gone too far.
As you arrive off the desert road into the town you drive down a hill and there will be a petrol station on your left….as you follow the road down before it sweeps up hill and to the right there is an unmarked rutted potholed ‘road’ to the left before the police check point: this is the entrance to the port. As you drive along you will see a checkpoint where you will check in your vehicle. After checking in it will cost 10 Manat if you wish to drive out again and return.
You will see a blue and white neon sign PAROM MENELI; follow the parking sign and park in front of the office.
It has been advised many times to put your name on a list as soon as you arrive, so you can buy your ticket once the ferry is loaded. The list is a little notebook sitting on the counter. Once the ferry is loaded, you will get a coupon, go through customs and pay on the boat. If you have a translator or travel agent with you, he might be able to help by calling the ticket lady. People have reported getting their ticket on the spot for a little extra.
Ferry docks are very near train station but immigration office is nearly 2km east. If you arrive in the daytime (seems tourists go after locals but before those with vehicles), there may be a bus, otherwise you need to either walk to town or get a taxi (phone or from highway). No facilities other than waiting room here but taxis accept usd.
Boarding the ferry
You cannot board the ferry before all cargo is loaded, so you will have to sip some tea in the waiting area. Customs officers will ask to see some proof that you will not be turned back once you arrive at your destination (eg. a visa or LOI). Once on board, someone will demand your passport and, in Turkmenistan, the passage fee. It is safe to give them your passport, they need them to log who is on the ship. When the ferry docks go to captain’s cabin to regain your passport.
Details of the journey and a bit of history
The coastline views of Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan are beautiful. It’s a real delight to steam slowly over a quiet body of water, gazing at the horizon punctuated with oil rigs. While crossing the Caspian Sea, you might be able to spot Neft Daslari, an entire city built upon the foundations of sunken oil tankers 55km away from the nearest shore. A documentary has been made about this fascinating little island; if you’re interested you can watch the trailer.
Probably the most exciting part for Western travelers, besides a glimpse of the shocking amounts of corruption and bureaucracy underpinning life around the Caspian, is watching the sun sink into the sea. The colors it affords are truly stunning. You are also free to wander around the boat wherever you like; into the hull, the machine room or the bridge… it’s quite interesting.
A less exciting part of the journey will be your first encounter with your cabin. Some boats, like the Qara Qarayev or Barda, are not too bad (even clean) when it comes to hygiene. Others are awful. Some cabins have port holes, others don’t. Shower and toilet are in the same place, and are usually not too clean, but there are public toilets elsewhere. Bring a sleeping bag, as your mattress and pillow are not guaranteed to be clean.
You might not need it, but to be safe, bring some food. The chef might fry you up some chicken for a few manat or dollars, and sell you some beers,vodka and cigarettes to boot, but once the food runs out (if they open at all), you’re on your own. Seeing how you can get stuck in the harbor for days, it would be wise to pack plenty of food. Don’t forget water!!
Some people, upon seeing the aged ships (they are over a quarter-century old), might wonder if it is safe to travel on a rusty vessel as the “Dagestan“. We found an answer in a well-written and very informative book by Lutz Kleveman, The New Great Game: Blood and oil in Central Asia.
The MV Nakhichevan is a Dagestan class rail ferry, an ageing relic of the Soviet era and one of seven rusting hulks pressed into service to bridge the gap between the Caucasus and Trans-Caspian railways. As much as I relished the idea of leaving Azerbaijan, the sight of the ferry made me worry that the corrupt police and the slag heap behind me may be the lesser of two evils. The ship was barely afloat. The Dagestans weren’t designed for open water, their topsides too high to survive the violent storms of the Caspian. Even moored to the groaning linkspan the ship looked unstable, rolling against the dock bumpers as the rail cars shunting into the hold upset its balance.
At 154 metres the Nakhichevan is almost the length of the enormous passenger ferries of the English Channel, but barely half as wide. The ship shares the same depth as those of the Channel, but while the Pride of Dover sails with a draft of over six metres the Nakhichevan sails with less than three. Its dimensions are all wrong for the open water: narrow, top heavy and prone to roll like a drunk in all but the calmest of seas. Their crews keep the Dagestans from the sea bed only by steering constantly into the wind. That and fervent prayer.
Seven years earlier these prayers were ignored when the Merkuriy-2, sister ship of the Nakhichevan, was lost in stormy seas while carrying a shipment of oil from Aktau to Baku. Force eight winds and six metre high waves proved too much for the vessel, and when the constant roll caused the cargo to break loose the ship was sent into a fatal list. Of the 51 souls aboard only nine were saved.
As a result of this accident, the shipping company is now reluctant to put too many people on any ferry in case there is another accident.
Customs and visa
Customs are another nasty feature of this ferry ride. With a car especially, you can get stuck for hours in customs. Turkmenbashi can take from 1 to (my personal record) 7 hours, Baku is equally bad, and Aktau is the worst, with people reporting to get stuck there for a whole day with their vehicle. Also, customs only seems to work 9-5 in Aktau, so although foot passengers can get off the ferry in the middle of the night, drivers can’t.
Azeri customs do not allow passengers on the ferry without having the actual visa of their destination in their passport, be it a transit or a tourist visa. For all your other visa questions, please refer to the relevant chapters: Turkmenistan visa, Kazakhstan visa and Azerbaijan visa.
Why (not) take the ferry?
To finish off this long article, a little overview:
- no airplanes involved
- a unique traveling experience
- beautiful scenery and sunsets
- could be expensive when traveling by car
- possibly a lot of frustration and lost time, especially on the Baku-Aktau line
- optional germs
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