There are 2 routes over the Caspian Sea that take passengers on board; both are cargo ships that run without a set timetable. One connects Baku in Azerbaijan to Aktau in Kazakhstan, the other runs between Baku and Turkmenbashi in Turkmenistan. This means there is no passenger ferry service over the Caspian Sea to Iran or to Russia.
It is not impossible or even difficult to take the ferry with enough time on hand. If you have budgeted enough extra days and are flexible with your schedule, taking the ferry will become a fun and rewarding experience instead of a nerve-wrecking one.
There is no timetable for either of these ferries. When they leave depends a lot on the weather, and on the amount of freight that is loaded. Basically, it leaves when it’s full. This means every 3-5 days between Aktau and Baku and every day or every other day to Turkmenbashi and back. The passage takes around 30 hours for Baku-Aktau and 17 hours for Baku-Turkmenbashi.
However, serious delays happen often. Between Baku and Aktau you can wait up to 2 weeks if you are unlucky. Although the Baku – Turkmenbashi is much more reliable, the port in Turkmenbashi is sometimes too busy, which means you can wait up to a day or more in the port before you are allowed in. One traveler waited for 6 days! This can happen in the other ports too, by the way.
You can find out where the boats are, though, through the Marine Traffic website. On the map of the Caspian Sea, look for the following vessels: Nakchivan, Dagistan, Qara Qarayev, Heydar Aliyev, Mercuri-1, Professor Gul. These are the vessels we know take passengers. Please let us know if you find out about another boat.
Ferry tickets and prices
You might need to show onward visas when you buy a ticket. On the boat you can get a cabin for 5, 10 or 20$ (bargain!).
Tickets for both itineraries can be bought only on the day the ferry leaves. You can find out when the ferry leaves by leaving your phone number at the ticket office, having someone call everyday (twice a day is better) or turning up yourself and asking “Is there a boat today?” A combination of these is best.
They will only sell tickets once there’s a confirmed sailing. Don’t trust what they say, though, keep asking around, you will hear many contradictory stories. Be persistant, don’t get fooled.
Vika (Victoria) and her colleague work at the Baku ticket office; one speaks English; +99 455 266 5354. She will organise space for you and your vehicle. Their office is at the port in the Soviet grey heavy door just before entry. They are also very helpful if you don’t have a vehicle, but you will still need to buy the tickets yourself.
You can also contact these people to buy tickets for you. Please note they only make the effort if you also purchase a tour in Azerbaijan with them. Another helpful fixer is Ismahel (+994 552861200) who will take 30 manat to buy tickets for you, and can also help with visas. If you’re just looking for an Azeri visa or LOI, see here for explanation and here to apply.
In Aktau, you need to put your name on the passenger waiting list. The office is in downtown Aktau, 8 km away from port, at 5-29-1 (microrayon 5, building 29, appt 1 ground floor). Here you meet Katia, who speaks English and will call you when the boat is coming.
Ferry with a car or bike
There is a separate charge for those crossing the seas with their vehicles. It changes from boat to boat (especially the ramp-scam has not been introduced everywhere yet).
Prices since April 2014: roughly, they will charge you an extra $50-70 USD per meter of the length of the vehicle transported to Turkmenistan and $100 USD per meter for a vehicle to Kazakhstan (Half a meter can be counted either way, try to measure smart!). One motorbike will cost you $110 USD (Turkmenistan) and $115 (Kazakhstan), a bicycle will cost $10 to both destinations. Another charge is for using the special bridge to board the ferry: 1 car is $25 USD, motorbike and bicycle $20 USD.
Yes, that’s a rip-off. Not all boats do this, though. On the other hand, some boats don’t mind asking for another 20$ to let you off the ferry.
If you are thinking of taking your car to Turkmenistan, see our article on driving in Turkmenistan for a full account of all the costs.
For Mongol Rally drivers
Want to take the ferry? You are not the only one. With the exploding popularity of the Mongol Rally, the people at the ticket office in Baku discovered a nice little earner in you and your fellow-drivers. Prices for tickets can suddenly increase drastically, as the places on board are limited. You might not get on the boat either, since they like to be strict about the number of people they let in. Plus, it will be full of other Mongol Rallyers. Some might like the companionship, while others prefer to get off the beaten track.
This map was not made by me, but it gives a good overview of where things are. Note the ferry terminal is no longer where the tickets are sold, but is 7 km more northeast (or not? I generally think so, but sometimes people still report boarding the ferry at the old terminal, so prepare for both, just in case).
The ticket office for the ferry in Baku (kassa) is a little tricky to find. But, walk along the seaside boulevard past the parliament building and on past the smart Denizi Voksal building; pass the huge Port Baku Residence building on the opposite side of the road. When you hit the railway tracks, which just cut straight over the main road, either follow them to the right between the white walls, or cross over them and then turn down the next road to the right – either way will lead you to a small open area with a single pole gate across the road and restaurant on the left (the Lenin mosaic is now almost completely gone). Here is the kassa (see picture below) and there’s a small sign on the wall on the right referring to the ferry/passenger company office. Just in case, the word for ferry in Russian is Parom.
You can catch bus 14 from the old town. The customs and ferry terminal have moved back to their original spot right 50m beyond the ticket office.
The ferry terminal now moved to the northern port, so the ferry is not leaving anymore from the place it’s usually described (including on the Google map), but around 7 kms up north, from the ro-ro terminal. Quite easy to find, it’s on the big boulevard leaving from the other port. Going straight ahead, you will find the port clearly signed.
If you’re leaving the port, a taxi costs around 8 to 10 manat to the centre.
If you’re stuck at the port
By the port in Baku, if you walk half a mile up on the main road (and not the train tracks), there’s a great little pizza joint and a few markets. Also, if you’re stuck at the port in Baku and sleeping on the tarmac, there’s a family that offers hot showers for 2 manat. It’s a little house with a rubber hose hanging from a hook. It’s not the Four Seasons by any means but it’s hot, clean water. If you walk up the tracks to where the shacks are (facing the road) you should be able to find it. Just ask.
In Aqtau, you need to put your name on the passenger waiting list. The office is in downtown Aktau, 8 km away from port, at 5-29-1 (microrayon 5, building 29, appt 1 ground floor). Here you meet Katia, who speaks English and will call you when the boat is coming. Another ticket office is at 7-21-1. Telephone: 872 92 51 77 59. It’s close to the World War II monument with the eternal flame. They take 25$ commission. Very little English is spoken, so a local’s help might be needed. Ask for Aika, she understands a bit. You have to leave your phone number, and you will be called when the boat is leaving. Then it can still be up to a day before it actually leaves.
The nice thing about the customs in Kazakhstan is they might have free WI-FI. There’s another place with internet in town; a restaurant at 2-43, near the ferry ticket office.
If you’re leaving Aktau by train, there is a bus to the train station 25km outside of town. It’s bus 105. There seems to be no more bus from the center of town – a taxi will cost 1000 tenge.
In Turkmenbashi, there are no signs to signify the port or what part of the port you might require. If you find a sign denoting the Sea Port…you have gone too far.
As you arrive off the desert road into the town you drive down a hill and there will be a petrol station on your left….as you follow the road down before it sweeps up hill and to the right there is an unmarked rutted potholed ‘road’ to the left before the police check point: this is the entrance to the port. As you drive along you will see a checkpoint where you will check in your vehicle. After checking in it will cost 10 Manat if you wish to drive out again and return.
You will see a blue and white neon sign PAROM MENELI; follow the parking sign and park in front of the office.
It has been advised many times to put your name on a list as soon as you arrive, so you can buy your ticket once the ferry is loaded. The list is a little notebook sitting on the counter. Once the ferry is loaded, you will get a coupon, go through customs and pay on the boat. If you have a translator or travel agent with you, he might be able to help by calling the ticket lady. People have reported getting their ticket on the spot for a little extra.
Boarding the ferry
You cannot board the ferry before all cargo is loaded, so you will have to sip some tea in the waiting area. Customs officers will ask to see some proof that you will not be turned back once you arrive at your destination (eg. a visa or LOI). Once on board, someone will demand your passport and, in Turkmenistan, the passage fee. It is safe to give them your passport, they need them to log who is on the ship. When the ferry docks go to captain’s cabin to regain your passport.
Details of the journey and a bit of history
The coastline views of Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan are beautiful. It’s a real delight to steam slowly over a quiet body of water, gazing at the horizon punctuated with oil rigs. While crossing the Caspian Sea, you might be able to spot Neft Daslari, an entire city built upon the foundations of sunken oil tankers 55km away from the nearest shore. A documentary has been made about this fascinating little island; if you’re interested you can watch the trailer.
Probably the most exciting part for Western travelers, besides a glimpse of the shocking amounts of corruption and bureaucracy underpinning life around the Caspian, is watching the sun sink into the sea. The colors it affords are truly stunning. You are also free to wander around the boat wherever you like; into the hull, the machine room or the bridge… it’s quite interesting.
A less exciting part of the journey will be your first encounter with your cabin. Some boats, like the Qara Qarayev, are not too bad when it comes to hygiene. Others are. Some cabins have port holes, others don’t. Shower and toilet are in the same place, and are not cleaned, but there are public toilets (equally ‘fragrant’) elsewhere. Bring a sleeping bag, as your mattress and pillow are not clean.
You might not need it, but to be safe, bring plenty of food. The chef might fry you up some chicken for a few manat or dollars, and sell you some beers,vodka and cigarettes to boot, but once the food runs out (if they open at all), you’re on your own. Seeing how you can get stuck in the harbor for days, it would be wise to pack plenty of food. Don’t forget water!!
Some people, upon seeing the aged ships (they are over a quarter-century old), might wonder if it is safe to travel on a rusty vessel as the “Dagestan“. We found an answer in a well-written and very informative book by Lutz Kleveman, The New Great Game: Blood and oil in Central Asia.
The MV Nakhichevan is a Dagestan class rail ferry, an ageing relic of the Soviet era and one of seven rusting hulks pressed into service to bridge the gap between the Caucasus and Trans-Caspian railways. As much as I relished the idea of leaving Azerbaijan, the sight of the ferry made me worry that the corrupt police and the slag heap behind me may be the lesser of two evils. The ship was barely afloat. The Dagestans weren’t designed for open water, their topsides too high to survive the violent storms of the Caspian. Even moored to the groaning linkspan the ship looked unstable, rolling against the dock bumpers as the rail cars shunting into the hold upset its balance.
At 154 metres the Nakhichevan is almost the length of the enormous passenger ferries of the English Channel, but barely half as wide. The ship shares the same depth as those of the Channel, but while the Pride of Dover sails with a draft of over six metres the Nakhichevan sails with less than three. Its dimensions are all wrong for the open water: narrow, top heavy and prone to roll like a drunk in all but the calmest of seas. Their crews keep the Dagestans from the sea bed only by steering constantly into the wind. That and fervent prayer.
Seven years earlier these prayers were ignored when the Merkuriy-2, sister ship of the Nakhichevan, was lost in stormy seas while carrying a shipment of oil from Aktau to Baku. Force eight winds and six metre high waves proved too much for the vessel, and when the constant roll caused the cargo to break loose the ship was sent into a fatal list. Of the 51 souls aboard only nine were saved.
As a result of this accident, the shipping company is now reluctant to put too many people on any ferry in case there is another accident.
Customs and visa
Customs are another nasty feature of this ferry ride. With a car especially, you can get stuck for hours in customs. Turkmenbashi can take from 1 to (my personal record) 7 hours , Baku is equally bad, and Aktau is the worst, with people reporting to get stuck there for a whole day with their vehicle.
Also, customs only seems to work 9-5 in Aktau, so although foot passengers can get off the ferry in the middle of the night, drivers can’t.
As of April 18th 2012, the Azeri customs do not allow passengers on the ferry without having the actual visa of their destination in their passport, be it a transit or a tourist visa.
Other ports on the Caspian Sea
The main ports on the Caspian sea are Baku, Makhachkala, Astrakhan (Olya), Turkmenbashi, Aktau and Enzeli. In addition, there are some small ports and docks at the Caspian sea, such as port Bautino, port Cheleken and docks Aladzha, Beckdash, Okarem, and Kianly, and in Iran the ports Nowshehr and Neka.
Why (not) take the ferry?
To finish off this long article, a little overview:
- no airplanes involved
- a unique traveling experience
- beautiful scenery and sunsets
- a little bit dangerous
- kind of disgusting
- could be expensive when traveling by car
- possibly a lot of frustration and lost time, especially on the Baku-Aktau line