This information is as of April 2018.
The address, opening times and phone numbers as phildearden and gilbut mentioned are all current, although don't rely on calling for further information as I must have tried contacting them dozens of times over the space of two weeks and the phone either rang out or had a message saying the number is not in service. There only appears to be one man handling everything from Uzbek consular issues to visa applications.
Anyhow I emailed the consulate using their email address on the Shanghai consulate website., [email protected]
I received a reply after 3 or 4 days telling me to complete the visa application on the site evisa.mfa.uz The form is a little temperamental in parts and seems impossible to upload a photo. Collection point of Shanghai is labeled as "Shanxay'. You need to save the form as a PDF and email it to [email protected]
Also as I could not get a photo to attach I printed it, glued a photo to the printout, scanned and emailed this as well. Plus a scan of my passport information page, although this was not requested.
I received a reply the next day telling me to come in to the consulate in 2-3 days, with no further information about what to bring. Tried emailing further and calling, but no response, so I prepared photocopies of every page of my passport, airline tickets and first night's hotel bookings, passport photos, extra completed copies of the application form etc. as I had read on other pages that those were the types of things required at different embassies - wanted to be prepared.
I showed up at the consulate in person at around 11:15am. The man behind the counter took my passport and said he required no other documents, photos etc. He came back after about 2 minutes with a Bank of China deposit slip and told me to go to Bank of China and pay 440rmb and be back by 1pm (lunch). Has to be a specific branch - the one on The Bund/Waitan about 5 mins by taxi (20 mins walk) away. Bank of China branches tend to be slow at the best of times, but at lunchtime on Friday....forget it. After waiting 40 mins and getting nervous I wouldn't make it back in time I went back to the consulate, arriving at around 12:55. The man was just closing up for lunch. I asked if I could just pay him cash, he replied "no problem', took the money and my passport and printed a visa sticker on the spot - took 1 minute max - wished me a good visit to Uzbekistan and told me if I have a good time recommend the country to friends. Easy
-complete the application form on the mfa website
-email it to the consulate
-take your passport there in person 3 days later
-440rmb (australian passport) for a 1 month single entry visa
-no other documents, printouts or photos required
-visa issued in under 5 minutes.