The Caspian Sea ferry is a collection of cargo ships that ply different routes between the nations surrounding the world’s biggest lake.
Although some people say it is easy to take the ferry across the Caspian Sea, the rules change all the time and it usually comes with a fair bit of uncertainty and confusion. Make sure you budget enough extra days and are flexible with your schedule, so taking the ferry can become a fun and rewarding experience instead of a nerve-wrecking one.
All updates and questions on the Caspian Sea ferry go in this forum topic.
- Ferry tickets and prices
- Ferry with a car or bike
- Ports in Azerbaijan
- Aqtau port
- Turkmenbashi port
- The journey
- Turkmenbashi – Baku and Olya ferry
- Why (not) take the ferry?
|Point A||Point B||Type of transport|
|Baku/Alat (AZ)||Aqtau/Kuryk (KAZ)||Old freighter with room for passengers|
|Baku/Alat (AZ)||Turkmenbashi (TM)||Old freighter with room for passengers|
|Baku/Alat (AZ)||Turkmenbashi (TM)||Berkarar and Bagtiyar|
|Olya (RU)||Turkmenbashi (TM)||Berkarar and Bagtiyar|
Plans for a ferry between Aqtau and Makhachkala are on the table, but so far, there is no sign of progress yet.
There is no timetable for any of these ferries. When they leave depends a lot on the weather, and on the amount of freight that is loaded. Basically, it leaves when it’s full. This means every 3-5 days between Aqtau and Baku and every day or every other day to Turkmenbashi and back. The passage takes around 30 hours for Baku-Aqtau and 17 hours for Baku-Turkmenbashi.
However, serious delays happen. Between Baku and Aqtau you can wait up to 2 weeks if you are unlucky. Although the Baku – Turkmenbashi is much more reliable, the port in Turkmenbashi is sometimes too busy, which means you can wait up to a day or more in the port before you are allowed in. One traveler waited for 6 days! This can happen in the other ports too, by the way.
Turkmen transit visa issue
This is a serious issue if you are planning to take the boat to Turkmenbashi on a transit visa. If you arrive late in Turkmenbashi and your visa is expired, you will be deported back to Azerbaijan and, since you probably are not allowed to enter there either, onwards to Georgia or elsewhere.
When going from Turkmenbashi to Baku, previously, you could get stamped out by the border guards before your boat had arrived and wait beyond the border if your transit visa has expired. No longer possible. You have the option of a 400$ fine or deportation, which means you are not allowed back into Turkmenistan for 3 years. The choice seems clear.
You can find out when the boats are scheduled to arrive on the website of the Caspian Shipping Company. You can also see where the boats are on the Marine Traffic website. On the map of the Caspian Sea, look for the following vessels: Bestekar Fikret Amirov, Nakchivan, Dagistan, Qara Qarayev, Heydar Aliyev, Mercuri-1, Professor Gul, Barda, Akademik Topchubashov, Shahdag, Azerbaijan, Berkarar, Bagtiyar.
These are the vessels we know take passengers. Please let us know if you find out about another boat.
News since 2016 – all is well
Writing in 2018, the past 2 summers have seen a lot of people with a very positive experience on the ferry. Prices were low (70-80$), food was included, no need to pay extra for a cabin and ferries often ran every day. Only the Alat-Baku thing (read on below) remains confusing, but otherwise, the ferry has become rather pleasant!
Ferry tickets and prices
Since October 2016, tickets can now be bought online, but only with departure from Baku and Alat. For vehicles, the system only allows you to book Baku-Turkmenbashi or Alat-Aktau. You pay online in USD. The first report on using the booking system is in.
Main takeaway: the online ticket process is smooth, easy and works. However, at the moment you still have to go to exchange your ticket at the office.
Tickets for both itineraries can usually only be bought on the day the ferry leaves (online it’s possible to book in advance). You can find out when the ferry leaves by leaving your phone number at the ticket office, having someone call everyday (twice a day is better) or turning up yourself and asking “Is there a boat today?” A combination of these is best.
They will only sell tickets once there’s a confirmed sailing. Be persistent, don’t get fooled.
Official prices are mentioned on the Caspian Shipping company website. A passenger ticket costs 60$ to Turkmenbashi from Baku/Alat) and 60$ from Baku/Alat to Aqtau/Kuryk. These are prices for a 4-person cabin. A 2-person cabin costs 80$.
You might need to show onward visas when you buy a ticket. Onboard the Berkarar from the passenger manager it costs $50 for a seat, $105 single bed, $160 twin bed.
Where to buy tickets
See the chapters of the different ports for more on that.
Ferry with a car or bike
There is a separate charge for those crossing the seas with their vehicles. It changes from boat to boat (especially the ramp-scam has not been introduced everywhere yet).
Prices since April 2015: roughly, they will charge you an extra $50-70 USD per meter of the length of the vehicle transported to Turkmenistan and $100 USD per meter for a vehicle to Kazakhstan (Half a meter can be counted either way, try to measure smart!). One motorbike will cost you $110 USD (Turkmenistan) and $115 (Kazakhstan), a bicycle will cost $10 to both destinations. Another charge is for using the special bridge to board the ferry: 1 car is $25 USD, motorbike and bicycle $20 USD.
Yes, that’s a rip-off. Not all boats do this, though. On the other hand, some boats don’t mind asking for another 20$ to let you off the ferry.
If you are thinking of taking your car to Turkmenistan, see our article on driving in Turkmenistan for a full account of all the costs.
If you are going in summer
The Mongol Rally circus rumbles across Eurasia somewhere in July and August. Last time I checked, there were about 700 teams in the Mongol Rally. Luckily, they don’t all want to get on the boat, but be aware that it does get busy.
The surge pricing that used to be common during the Mongol Rally seems to now be a thing of the past.
Ports in Azerbaijan
Since 2015, much of the ferry traffic has moved from Baku to Alat, 70 km south of Baku. Since 2017, all ferries to Aqtau have left from Alat. For the boat to Turkmenbashi, we cannot say for certain if it will be Alat or Baku.
How it works
Option 1: You can wait in Baku for a ferry, call the office every day until they say a boat is coming, go to Alat and board immediately.
Option 2: You can go straight to Alat and camp in the ferry terminal there until a boat shows up.
Where to buy tickets
Baku: The ticket office can be found on the Boulevard at the Marine Passenger Terminal (Gmaps/OSM). Vika and co can be reached at +994 55 2665354 or +994 55 999 91 24. Alternatively, try +994 50 420 09 05 or +994 55 555 17 57.
Alat: the ticket office is at the ferry terminal. Some people have reported that they were initially refused a ticket, being told you have to get it in Baku. Every one of them managed to get one in the end, by saying they would not go back and wanted to get one in Alat. In short, you can get a ticket in Alat.
Just in case, the word for ferry in Russian is parom, ticket is bilyet, cash desk is kassa.
For reference only, since boats now leave from Alat.
Ferry terminal The ferry terminal is either at the old seaport (map) or 7 km more northeast. If it’s the ro-ro terminal 7 km out of town, it is quite easy to find, it’s on the big boulevard leaving from the other port. Going straight ahead, you will find the port clearly signed. If you’re leaving the port, a taxi costs around 8 to 10 manat to the centre. If you’re stuck at the port By the port in Baku, if you walk half a mile up on the main road (and not the train tracks), there’s a great little pizza joint and a few markets. Also, if you’re stuck at the port in Baku and sleeping on the tarmac, there’s a family that offers hot showers for 2 manat. It’s a little house with a rubber hose hanging from a hook. It’s not the Four Seasons by any means but it’s hot, clean water. If you walk up the tracks to where the shacks are (facing the road) you should be able to find it. Just ask.
The port is in the middle of nowhere. There are taxis that will take dollars, and there is also a minibus. There is a cafe, a shop that sells basic groceries, SIM cards and exchanges money, and a 24/7 ATM that spews Manat, USD and EUR. There is also a free (sometimes warm) shower near the toilet container, an option to charge electronic devices for free, and wifi (paid).
Or, from the İçәri şәhәr Metro Station, you can take bus 6 (costs AZN 0.20) to Sәbail Rayon Dövlәt Yol Polisi İdarәsi, then bus 195 (costs AZN 0.80) to Alat (get off at the roundabout after the Alat Train Station). From there, take a taxi (costs AZN 5) to the port.
A taxi from Baku would cost around 30 AZN.
How to get out of Alat port if coming from the ferry: there are no buses from the Alat port, only taxis ($50 to Baku). On a budget, ask to be taken to the bus 195 stop a few kms away, using your phone to write 195 and saying “otobüs”. Pay no more than 5 dollars, and try to get change. The bus to Baku costs 1 manat.
There is no accommodation, but camping is possible. The port’s telephone number is +994 50 746 2962
Since May 2017, traffic is being shifted from the Aqtau port to the new port of Kuryk. For now, it seems you may arrive or depart from either Aqtau or Kuryk. Inform in advance to be sure.
Buying a ticket
In Aqtau, you need to put your name on the passenger waiting list. The office is in downtown Aqtau, 8 km away from port, at 5-29-1 (microrayon 5, building 29, appt 1, ground floor – Aqtau is that place where the streets have no name – OSM/Gmaps). Here you meet Julia, who does not speak English but is very nice and will call you when the boat is coming. Open Mo-Fr 9-18, you can call this number: +7 777 490 46 63.
Another ticket office is at 7-21-1. Telephone: 872 92 51 77 59. It’s close to the World War II monument with the eternal flame. Very little English is spoken, so a local’s help might be needed. Ask for Aika, she understands a bit. You have to leave your phone number, and you will be called when the boat is leaving. Then it can still be up to a day before it actually leaves.
It seems the second office is gone. You can now also buy tickets at the port itself, it seems. Once you reach the first gate, enter the semi-small building to the right. Once inside, keep right. It is easier as it sounds. Ask for Sergej – he is incredibly helpful and speaks English.
The Hotel B&B Aktau can buy a ticket for you in advance (not really in advance, just when it becomes available) for an extra commission of the daily tenge equivalent of $3 (they require a passport copy, and will charge your credit card). But make sure they buy it from the office with the quickest boat.
The nice thing about the customs in Kazakhstan is they might have free WI-FI. There’s another place with internet in town; a restaurant at 2-43, near the ferry ticket office.
If you’re leaving Aqtau by train, there is a bus to the train station 25km outside of town. It’s bus 105. There seems to be no more bus from the center of town – a taxi will cost 1000 tenge.
Kuryk is a new port in full development. It’s a 45-50 minute drive south from Aqtau. There are basically no services. Taxis might be hanging around the port. If not, hitchhiking is the only option for foot passengers.
Kuryk has an ATM and several small shops, as well as onward transport to Aqtau in the form of shared taxis and minibuses.
In Turkmenbashi, there are no signs to signify the port or what part of the port you might require. If you find a sign denoting the Sea Port…you have gone too far.
As you arrive off the desert road into the town you drive down a hill and there will be a petrol station on your left….as you follow the road down before it sweeps up hill and to the right there is an unmarked rutted potholed ‘road’ to the left before the police check point: this is the entrance to the port. As you drive along you will see a checkpoint where you will check in your vehicle. After checking in it will cost 10 Manat if you wish to drive out again and return.
You will see a blue and white neon sign PAROM MENELI; follow the parking sign and park in front of the office.
It has been advised many times to put your name on a list as soon as you arrive, so you can buy your ticket once the ferry is loaded. The list is a little notebook sitting on the counter. Once the ferry is loaded, you will get a coupon, go through customs and pay on the boat. If you have a translator or travel agent with you, he might be able to help by calling the ticket lady. People have reported getting their ticket on the spot for a little extra.
Ferry docks are very near train station but immigration office is nearly 2km east. If you arrive in the daytime (seems tourists go after locals but before those with vehicles), there may be a bus, otherwise you need to either walk to town or get a taxi (phone or from highway). No facilities other than waiting room here but taxis accept usd.
Boarding the ferry
You cannot board the ferry before all cargo is loaded, so you will have to sip some tea in the waiting area. Customs officers will ask to see some proof that you will not be turned back once you arrive at your destination (eg. a visa or LOI). Once on board, someone will demand your passport and, in Turkmenistan, the passage fee. It is safe to give them your passport, they need them to log who is on the ship. When the ferry docks go to the captain’s cabin to regain your passport.
Details of the journey and a bit of history
The coastline views of Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan are beautiful. It’s a real delight to steam slowly over a quiet body of water, gazing at the horizon punctuated with oil rigs. While crossing the Caspian Sea, you might be able to spot Neft Daslari, an entire city built upon the foundations of sunken oil tankers 55km away from the nearest shore.
Probably the most exciting part for Western travelers, besides a glimpse of the shocking amounts of corruption and bureaucracy underpinning life around the Caspian, is watching the sun sink into the sea. The colors it affords are truly stunning. You are also free to wander around the boat wherever you like; into the hull, the machine room or the bridge… it’s quite interesting. Crew and other passengers are very happy to chat.
A less exciting part of the journey will be your first encounter with your cabin. Some boats, like the Qara Qarayev or Barda, are not too bad (even clean) when it comes to hygiene. Others are awful. Some cabins have port holes, others don’t. Shower and toilet are in the same place, and are usually not too clean, but there are public toilets elsewhere. Bring a sleeping bag, as your mattress and pillow are not guaranteed to be clean.
You might not need it, but to be safe, bring some food. Recently, people have started reporting better service and even free food included in your ticket price, but this is not a given, and every ship is different. So some have gotten 3 meals for free, others got the chef to fry up some chicken for a few manat or dollars, and sell them some beers, vodka and cigarettes to boot, whereas even others saw the food run out quickly (there is always an emergency vodka ration though), or got nothing at all, with no cups or even water available.
Seeing how you can get stuck in the harbor for days, it would be wise to pack some food. Make it something that can stay for long, in case you do get tasty food, and don’t forget to bring a bottle of water.
Some people, upon seeing the aged ships (they are over a quarter-century old), might wonder if it is safe to travel on a rusty vessel like the “Dagestan“. We found an answer in Lutz Kleveman’s, The New Great Game: Blood and oil in Central Asia.
The MV Nakhichevan is a Dagestan class rail ferry, an ageing relic of the Soviet era and one of seven rusting hulks pressed into service to bridge the gap between the Caucasus and Trans-Caspian railways. As much as I relished the idea of leaving Azerbaijan, the sight of the ferry made me worry that the corrupt police and the slag heap behind me may be the lesser of two evils. The ship was barely afloat. The Dagestans weren’t designed for open water, their topsides too high to survive the violent storms of the Caspian. Even moored to the groaning linkspan the ship looked unstable, rolling against the dock bumpers as the rail cars shunting into the hold upset its balance.
At 154 metres the Nakhichevan is almost the length of the enormous passenger ferries of the English Channel, but barely half as wide. The ship shares the same depth as those of the Channel, but while the Pride of Dover sails with a draft of over six metres the Nakhichevan sails with less than three. Its dimensions are all wrong for the open water: narrow, top heavy and prone to roll like a drunk in all but the calmest of seas. Their crews keep the Dagestans from the sea bed only by steering constantly into the wind. That and fervent prayer.
Seven years earlier these prayers were ignored when the Merkuriy-2, sister ship of the Nakhichevan, was lost in stormy seas while carrying a shipment of oil from Aqtau to Baku. Force eight winds and six metre high waves proved too much for the vessel, and when the constant roll caused the cargo to break loose the ship was sent into a fatal list. Of the 51 souls aboard only nine were saved.
As a result of this accident, the shipping company is now reluctant to put too many people on any ferry in case there is another accident.
Customs and visa
Customs are another nasty feature of this ferry ride. With a car especially, you can get stuck for hours in customs. Turkmenbashi can take from 1 to (my personal record) 7 hours, Baku is equally bad, and Aqtau is the worst, with people reporting to get stuck there for a whole day with their vehicle. Also, customs only seems to work 9-5 in Aqtau, so although foot passengers can get off the ferry in the middle of the night, drivers can’t.
Azeri customs do not allow passengers on the ferry without having the actual visa of their destination in their passport, be it a transit or a tourist visa. For all your other visa questions, please refer to the relevant chapters: Turkmenistan visa, Kazakhstan visa and Azerbaijan visa.
Turkmenbashi – Baku and Olya ferry
Since 2016, there is a new boat in town, it’s called the Berkarar and its brother, the Bagtiyar. It seems to operate under the same conditions as other boats (see more on that below), meaning no timetable and same confusing way to buy tickets. Maybe not! We don’t have enough info yet, really. But it is more set up for passengers. We only have one report so far, here is what we know:
It’s a fast ferry which can probably cross Baku – Turkmenbashi in 8 to 10 hours, but you should still budget 1-2 days as loading on and off can take ages. Ferry is tourist class, just wait until or if the 2 bars, buffet and shops open. The kids playroom is equipped so bring your children. Beds are great, good ship bathrooms with hot water showers. They even have lounges and large flat screen TVs with hundreds of useless channels, so bring some USB movies for the Turkish drivers.
What about the route to Olya? The Berkarar seems to be going there, but we are in doubt when it comes to the details.
More updates welcome.
Why (not) take the ferry?
To finish off this long article, a little overview:
- no airplanes involved
- a unique traveling experience
- beautiful scenery and sunsets
- could be expensive when traveling by car
- possibly a lot of frustration and lost time, especially on the Baku-Aqtau line
- missing out on wonderful Dagestan and interesting Iran
- Turkmenistan is tricky because of the short Turkmen transit visa
Comments are closed. All updates and questions on the Caspian Sea ferry go in this forum topic.