Extensive guides about getting around Turkmenistan by car, bus, taxi, train and airplane have been written, see the links below. This page serves up some general recommendations.
Getting around in Turkmenistan
If you are on a tourist visa, you will be traveling in a 4×4 with your tour guide while visiting Turkmenistan, while perhaps also taking an airplane for a large transfer. Trains exist but are of such poor quality that they are best avoided.
For independent travelers without their own means of transport, this leaves the bus or shared taxi to rush across the country in the few days they are allowed to stay.
In cities, gypsy cabs or buses will take you around. Winter has little effect on the transport system in Turkmenistan.